Therapeutics for Parkinson’s Disease

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The physiological basis of Parkinson’s (including known causes)

Current and future therapeutics for Parkinson’s

Other therapeutic options

Recent drug approvals for Parkinson’s disease:

  • 2019 and 2020:  Three FDA approvals for add-on drugs that lessen “off” time:  Ongentys (opicapone), a new COMT inhibitor; Nourianz (istradefylline), a first-in-class “adenonsine A2A antagonist”; and Inbrija (inhaled levodopa) for rescue dosing
  • 2018:  Xeomin (incobotulinumtoxinA), an injectable drug similar to Botox, for excessive drooling, a frequent symptom of Parkinson’s disease
  • 2017 and 2018:  Two new extended-release formulations of amantadine, Gocovri to treat levodopa-induced dyskinesias, and Osmolex ER for Parkinson’s symptoms.
  • 2017:  Safinamide (Xadago), for symptomatic benefit
  • 2016:  Pimavanserin (Nuplazid), for hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson’s disease psychosis
  • 2015:  Rytary, a new extended-release formulation of levodopa/carbidopa (the same drugs in Sinemet), discussed briefly on the levodopa pharmacokinetics page
  • 2015:  Duopa, levodopa/carbidopa delivered directly into the small intestine, to reduce off time and dyskinesias, also discussed briefly on the levodopa pharmacokinetics page
  • 2014:  Droxidopa (Northera), for orthostatic hypotension (low blood pressure, especially upon standing up)

Additional reliable information on these recently approved drugs available on the Michael J. Fox Foundation website.